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Present Perfect Tense & Exercise

1. Form: to have (present tense)+ the past participle
of the main verb.

Positive
Subject to have past participle
She has finished.
Negative
Subject to have + not past participle
She hasn’t finished.
Interrogative positive
to have subject past participle
Has she finished…?
Interrogative negative
to have + not subject past participle
Hasn’t she finished…?

Example: to leave (irregular verb), present perfect
form

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I have left I haven’t left Have I left?
You have left You haven’t left Have you left?
He, she, it has left He, she, it hasn’t left Has he,she,it left?
We have left We haven’t left Have we left?
You have left You haven’t left Have you left?
They have left They haven’t left Have they left?

2. Use:

The present perfect is used for a complete action: We are thinking of the result when describing:

EXAMPLES:

1. An action or situation that started in the past and continuesin the present.

I have lived in Canada since 1984. (and I still do)

2. An action performed during a period that has not yet finished.

She has been to the doctor twice this week. (and the week isn’t over yet)

3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now.

We have visited London several times.

4. An action that was completed in the very recent past (expressed
by ‘just’
)

I have just finished my work.

5. An action when the result is very important but the time is not.

He has seen ‘Harry Potter’.

Present perfect OR past simple?

Very Important: When we want to give or ask details about
when, where, who,
we use the simple past.

Example: He saw ‘Harry Potter’ last week.

Use the present perfect when the time is not important.

Use the simple past when the time or place is important.

Try the exercise

PRESENT PERFECT + for, since

When talking about the length of time (duration), we use the present
perfect with for + a period of time.

When talking about a starting point, we use the present perfect with
since + a point in time.

For + a period of time:

for six years, for a week, for a month, for
hours, for two hours.

I have worked here for five years. She has lived here for twenty
years. They have been married for six months.

Since + a point in time:

since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,

since I was 12, since Friday, since 6 o’clock.

I have lived here since 1998. They have been married since June.
We have been at this school since last year.

F PRESENT PERFECT + adverbs (ever, never, already, yet, still)

‘Ever’ and ‘never’ are always placed before the past
participle
.

‘Ever’ = sometime before now, is used:

a. in questions

Have you ever been to Canada?

Has she ever met someone famous?

b. in negative questions

Haven’t they ever been to Canada?

Haven’t you ever eaten Thai food?

c. and in negative statements using the pattern nothing…….ever,
nobody…….ever e.g.

Nobody has ever said that to me before.

Nothing like that has ever happened to me.

d. ‘Ever’ is also used with ‘The first time…. e.g.

It’s the first time I’ve ever eaten Thai food.

This is the first time I’ve ever been to Canada.

‘Never’ = not ever. Never is used after have/has.

I have never visited London. I’ve never
been so sick.

Already, yet and still. It can be placed before
the main verb
(past participle) or at the end of the sentence.

Already = sooner than expected, is used:

a. I’ve already heard the story five times.

b. Most people have already gone.

It is also used in questions:

a. Have you already rung Mike?

b. Has he arrived already?

Yet is used in negative statements and questions when we are
expecting something to happen and goes at the end of the sentence.

a. Have you bought a ticket yet?

b. I haven’t met her yet.

c. Has your course started yet?

d. They haven’t arrived yet.

Still = continuing longer than expected. Still is stronger
than yet and often expresses surprise that a situation has continued
for so long.

a. She isn’t home yet. She’s still at work.

b. I still haven’t found what I’m looking for.

c. I’m still thinking about it.

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