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Suffixes

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Suffixes are groups of letters attached to the ends of roots, words, and word groups. Suffixes serve a grammatical function. A suffix can indicate what part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) the word belongs to. Suffixes can also change and extend the meaning. The following suffixes are grouped beneath the grammatical function they perform.



NOUNS

Nouns perform the function of naming. Nouns name persons, places animals or things, as well as groups, ideas and qualities. In a sentence, nouns can be subjects, objects, or appositives.

INDEX: A D E F I M N O S U Y

A

  • -acy, -cy
  • -age
    • Noun: activity, or result of action
      • courage :having the spirit to overcome fear
        • cour + age
  • -al ,el, ul
    • Noun: action, result of action
      • referral :the action of directing a person to another place, person or thing
  • -an
    • Noun: person
      • artisan :a craftsperson
        • arti + san
  • -ance, -ence
    • Noun: action, state, quality or process
      • resistance :the action of opposing something
      • independence:the state of not being under the control of others, free, self-governing
  • -ancy, -ency
    • Noun: state, quality or capacity
      • vacancy :an empty room or position
      • agency:the capacity to exert power or influence, a position or person that performs a function
        • ag + ency
  • -ant, -ent
    • Noun: an agent, something that performs the action
      • disinfectant :an agent that destroys germs, somthing that cleans
      • dependent:a thing supported by another, a thing determined by another
  • -ate
    • Noun: state, office, fuction
      • candidate :a person nominated for an office or position
        • candid + ate
  • -ation
    • Noun: action, resulting state
      • specialization :the result of being distinguished by one quality or ability

D

  • -dom
    • Noun: place, state of being
      • wisdom :possessing knowledge
        • wis + dom

E

  • -er, -or
    • Noun: person or thing that does something
      • porter :a person who carries things
      • collector:a person who collects or gathers things

F

  • -ful
    • Noun: an amount or quanity that fills
      • mouthful :an amount that fills the mouth
        • mouth + ful

I

  • -ian, an
    • Noun: related to, one that is
      • pedestrian :a person who walks
        • ped + estr + ian
      • human:a person
        • hum + an
  • -ia
    • Noun: names, diseases
      • phobia :an illogical fear of something
        • phob + ia
  • -iatry
    • Noun: art of healing
      • psychiatry :branch of medicine that deals with the mind and emotions
  • -ic, ics
    • Noun: related to the arts and sciences
      • arithmetic :a branch of math that usually deals with non-negative numbers
        • arithm + et + ic
      • economics:the social science related to studying business
        • eco + nom + ics
  • -ice
    • Noun: act
      • malice :the desire to do evil
  • -ing
    • Noun: material made for, activity, result of an activity
      • flooring :a material made for floors
        • floor + ing
      • swimming:the activity of swimming or moving through water
        • swim(m) + ing
      • building:the result of making a structure
        • build + ing
  • -ion
    • Noun: condition or action
      • abduction :the action of carrying someone away by force
  • -ism
    • Noun: doctrine, belief, action or conduct
      • formalism :a belief in sticking to prescribed forms or artistic styles
  • -ist
    • Noun: person or member
      • podiatrist :a foot doctor
  • -ite
    • Noun: product or part
      • graphite :a black material used in making pencils
  • -ity, ty
    • Noun: state or quality
      • lucidity :clear thinking
        • luc + id + ity
      • novelty:something new or unusual
        • nov + el + ty
  • -ive
    • Noun: condition
      • native :a person born in a specific place

M

  • -ment
    • Noun: condition or result
      • document :an official paper usually showing proof or evidence of something

N

  • -ness
    • Noun: state, condition, quality
      • kindness :the quality of being kind or nice
        • kind + ness

O

  • -or
    • Noun: condition or activity
      • valor :bravery, courage
        • val + or
  • -ory
    • Noun: place for, serves for
      • territory :an area around a place

S

  • -ship
    • Noun: status, condition
      • relationship :the state of being related or connected to something or someone

U

  • -ure
    • Noun: act, condition, process, function
      • exposure :the condition of being exposed or unprotected
        • ex + pos + ure

Y

  • -y
    • Noun: state, condition, result of an activity
      • society :companionship
      • victory:the result of winning something
        • vict + or + y

VERBS

Verbs make statements about nouns, ask questions, give commands, or show states of being. Verbs can be active or passive. Verbs also show tense or time of action.

INDEX: A E I U

A

  • -ate
    • Verb: cause to be
      • graduate :to give a degree to, to pass from one stage to the next

E

  • -ed
    • Verb: past tense
      • attained :something that has been reached or grasped
  • -en
    • Verb: to cause to become
      • moisten :to cause to become moist or damp
        • moist + en
  • -er, -or
    • Verb: action
      • ponder :to think about
      • clamor:to make noise, to call for loudly

I

  • -ify
    • Verb: cause
      • specify :to name or indicate in detail
  • -ing
    • Verb: present participle
      • depicting :showing, describing with images or pictures
  • -ize
    • Verb: cause
      • fantasize :to dream about something, to create images in the mind

U

  • -ure
    • act
      • Verb: conjecture :to come to a conclusion by supposition or guesswork

ADJECTIVES

Adjectives describe or modify nouns. Adjectives tell the reader more about the noun used in the sentence.

INDEX: A E F I L O Y

A

  • -able, -ible
    • Adjective: worth, ability
      • solvable :able to be solved or explained
      • incredible:not able to be believed, amazing
  • -al, -ial, -ical
    • Adjective: quality, relation
      • structural :related to the physical make up of a thing
      • territorial:related to nearby or local areas
      • categorical:related to a category, aboslute
  • -ant, -ent, -ient
    • Adjective: kind of agent, indication
      • important :marked by worth
      • dependent:determined or relying upon something else
      • convenient:at hand, easy to use
  • -ar, -ary
    • Adjective: resembling, related to
      • spectacular :related to something that is eye-catching or amazing
      • unitary :related to units or single groups representing quantities
  • -ate
    • Adjective: kind of state
      • inviolate :not disturbed, pure
        • in + viol + ate

E

  • -ed
    • Adjective: having the quality of
      • terraced :having terraces or steps
  • -en
    • Adjective: material
      • silken :made from silk, a fiber produced by worms
        • silk + en
  • -er
    • Adjective: comparative
      • brighter :more light
        • bright + er
  • -est
    • Adjective: superlative
      • strongest :having the most strength
        • strong + est

F

  • -ful
    • Adjective: having, giving, marked by
      • fanciful :marked by imagination

I

  • -ic
    • Adjective: quality, relation
      • generic :related to a whole group
  • -ile
    • Adjective: having the qualities of
      • projectile :something thrown with an outside force
  • -ing
    • Adjective: activity
      • cohering :the act of sticking together
  • -ish
    • Adjective: having the character of
      • newish :modern, recent
        • new + ish
  • -ive, -ative, -itive
    • Adjective: having the quality of
      • festive :having the quality of a festival or party
        • fest + ive
      • cooperative :being able or willing to work with another person or thing
      • sensitive:easily felt, responsive to the senses

L

  • -less
    • Adjective: without, missing
      • motiveless :a reason for someone to do something

O

  • -ous, -eous, -ose, -ious
    • Adjective: having the quality of, relating to
      • adventurous :characterized by the desire to seek new experiences or risks
      • courageous :characterized by courage, brave
        • cour + ag + eous
      • verbose:having more words than needed
      • fractious:characterized by being difficult or troublesome

Y

  • -y
    • Adjective: marked by, having
      • hungry :having hunger, marked by a desire
        • hungr + y

ADVERBS

Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

INDEX: F L W

F

  • -fold
    • Adverb: in a manner of, marked by
      • fourfold :being four times as great
        • four + fold

L

  • -ly
    • Adverb: in the manner of
      • fluently :marked by ease of movement, effortlessly smooth

W

  • -ward
    • Adverb: in a direction or manner
      • homeward :toward home
        • home + ward
  • -wise
    • Adverb: in the manner of, with regard to
      • timewise :with regard to time
        • time + wise

 

  • Noun: state or quality
    • privacy:the state of being alone
      • priv + acy
    • infancy:the state of being a baby or young child
      • in + fan + cy